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ECF 700 - Child Development, Birth-Age 8

Sample PsycINFO Search

Laura E. Berk (2012).  Infants, Children, and Adolescents.  Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  7th edition, p. 375.


Peer Relations and School Readiness

The ease with which kindergartners make new friends and are accepted by their classmates predicts cooperative participation in classroom activities and self-directed completion of learning tasks.  These behaviors, in turn, are related to gains in achievement over the kindergarten year (Ladd, Birch,& Buhs, 1999; Ladd, Buhs, & Seid, 2000).  Of course, kindergartners with friendly, prosocial behavioral styles make new friends easily, whereas those with weak emotional self-regulation skills and argumentative, assertive, or peer-avoidant styles establish poor-quality relationships and make few friends.  These negative social outcomes impair children’s liking for school, classroom participation, and academic learning (Birch & Ladd, 1998).”


Birch, S.H. & Ladd, G.W. (1998).  Children’s interpersonal behaviors and the teacher-child relationship.  Developmental Psychology, 34, 934-946.

PsycINFO search:

DE=teacher student interaction

DE=interpersonal interaction

age limit

peer reviewed

pub. year limit