Alexandria Digital Library Gazeteer Server - This gazetteer contains place names for the entire World, including the United States. It is based on gazetteer information from a number of sources, including GEOnet and GNIS.
GEONET Name Server (GNS) A comprehensive worldwide gazetteer based on the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
database. The level of detail varies, but entries usually contain
features found on 1:250,000 to 1:1 million scale maps, both populated
places and other cultural and natural geographic features (millions of
names). It does not include geographic names in the United States.
GeoNames Over 8 million placenames. Uses the GEOnet database for international locations, the GNIS database of US locations, and other sources. Integrates with Google Maps and other internet utilities. Allows download of large amounts of placename data for use, for instance, in GIS software.
GeoNative - A site that deals with Minority and
Native Language place names.
Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names - The Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) provides information on place names related to art, art history and related subjects, such as history archeology, and geography.
"This is a directory of 2,880,532 of the world's cities and towns, sorted by country and linked to a map for each town. Presentation Copyright 1998 by Carl Rosenberg." Countries are listed alphabetically by internet suffix, so search the page (<CTRL-F>) if you can't find what you need. Shows latitude and longitude down to the degree level (no minutes or seconds). One of the few sources to include elevation, in meters and feet.
J. Paul Getty Trust sponsors a database of place names worldwide. With 900,000 entries, it is not nearly as extensive as the GEONET
Name Server (above), but some records contain short informational
blurbs about a place's historical, economic, and cultural significance.
Oddens' Bookmarks: Gazetteers List of online gazetteers covering various levels of geography, from metropolitan areas to the entire world.
Place Name Web Sites From the Arizona State University Library. U.S.A., world as a whole, and individual country online gazetteers.
Project Perseus Atlas - Locate and plot sites related to the Greek world and the Mediterranean region. The atlas has drawings, digital elevation models, satellite images and three-dimensional topographic views.
Shtetl Seeker - Shtetl Seeker is a searchable
database that provides information on the location of populated places in
Eastern Europe, many of which no longer exist.